• Rhizome (Araceae, Poaceae, Zingiberaceae, Orchids (some))

  • Blackish bark (Diospyros)

  • Tree branching in whorls (Alstonia, Terminalia (most), Bombax, Myristicaceae, Actinodaphne, Ebenaceae, Gonocaryum, Pinus, Araucaria, Podocarpus)

  • Tree with terminalia branching (Eriobotrya, Terminalia (most), Alstonia, Rauvolfia, Gardenia, Barringtonia, Alseodaphne, Madhuca (some), Elaeocarpus, Baccaurea)

  • Resin (Dipterocarpaceae, Anacardiaceae, Coniferales, Burseraceae (some?))

  • Yellow sap (Calophyllaceae, Clusiaceae, Hypericaceae)

  • White sap (Apocynaceae, Araceae (some), Calophyllaceae, Clusiaceae, Hypericaceae, Meliaceae (some) Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Mangifera, Burseraceae (some))

  • Red sap (Myristicaceae, Macaranga (some), Croton (some), Tectona(?), Pterocarpus)

  • Black sap (Anacardiaceae)

  • Peeling bark with mucilage (slimy) (Malvaceae)

  • Bark with strong smell when cut (Lauraceae, Cinnamomum, Toona, Coniferales, Radermachera)

  • Leaves with strong smell (Lamiaceae (most), Leguminosae (bean smell))

  • Spines on the stem (Carissa, Anogeissus, Bombax, Canthium, Cratoxylum, Lagerstroemia, Calamus, Trevesia, Erythrina, Caesalpinia)

  • Fishnet pattern beneath bark, peeling bark, rays visible when cut (Annonaceae)

  • Bark shedding/flaky (Lagerstroemia)

  • Young twigs square (Melastoma, Lamiaceae, Duabanga, Bignoniaceae (some), Lauraceae (some), Rubiaceae (some))

  • Twigs swollen at nodes (Ardisia)

  • Twig with line between opposite leaves (Melastomataceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae)

  • Stipules within compound leaf (Leguminosae (some))

  • Stipule scar around the whole twig (Artocarpus, Ficus, Rubiaceae, Magnolia, Dillenia)

  • Petiole base with triangular scar on upper side when broken off (Dillenia, Magnolia)

  • Interpetiolar stipule (Rubiaceae)

  • Leaf scar around the whole stem (Monocots)

  • Clasping leaf stalks (Garcinia)

  • Leaf stalks with groove on upperside (Icacinaceae, Dillenia)

  • Pseudo-stipules (Canarium, Pometia, Anacardiaceae (some))

  • Silver to golden shiny lower leaf (Heritiera, Castanopsis, Chrysophyllum, Eberhardtia, Croton)

  • Whitish-waxy lower leaf (Alstonia, Pterospermum, Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Quercus, Uvaria, Lauraceae (most), Ficus, Litchi, Nephelium, Knema, Mesua, Mallotus, Macaranga)

  • Leaves drying black (Diospyros)

  • Needle leaves (Pinus)

  • Scale leaves (Araucaria)

  • Two glands at tip leaf stalk (Croton, Terminalia (some), Prunus (some))

  • Compound leaf with gland on leaf stalk between leaflets (Archidendron)

  • Leaves half split (Bauhinia)

  • Leaves curved (Cynometra)

  • Leaf base with two ears (Alchornea)

  • Venation not visible (thick-leaf) (Memecylon, Garcinia (often))

  • Leaves with nectary glands (Euphorbiaceae (most), Hibiscus, Gmelina, Prunus, Terminalia (some))

  • Leaf margin emarginate (Ardisia, Trigonostemon)

  • Leaves palmately compound (Schefflera, Bombax, Syngonium, Vitex)

  • Leaves peltate (Macaranga, Mallotus, Alocasia)

  • Leaves with domatia (Canthium, Sarcosperma)

  • Leaf with pitcher (Nepenthes)

  • Leaves lobed (Scaphium (when young), Pterospermum (some), Trevesia)

  • Leaves compound (Bombax, Syngonium, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, Choerospondias, Spondias, Burseraceae, Bignoniaceae, Vitex, Leguminosae)

  • Leaves double compound (Archidendron, Adenanthera, Caesalpinia, Parkia, Albizia, Azadirachta, Radermachera)

  • Compound leaf ending in small tip next to last leaflet (Meliaceae (some), Sapindaceae)

  • Compound leaf with two leaflets (Cynometra)

  • Leaves sheathing (Araceae, Arecaceae, Poaceae, Zingiberaceae, Orchidaceae)

  • Leaves with transparent glands (Cratoxylum, Ardisia)

  • Leaves with black dots (Diospyros, Calophyllum?, Cratoxylum)

  • Leaves with latex channels (Garcinia)

  • Leaves with intramarginal (looping) vein (Alstonia, Araceae (some), Syzygium, Duabanga, Spondias, Melastoma)

  • Leaves with three basal veins (Melastoma, Erythrina, Gmelina, Malvaceae (most), Alocasia, Cinnamomum, Cryptocarya, Ficus, Morus, Syngonium, Macaranga, Mallotus, Alchornea)

  • Leaves with three parallel veins (Melastoma, most Cinnamomum, other Lauraceae few)

  • Leaves with toothed margin (Eriobotrya, Prunus, Maesa, Symplocos, Vitex, Dillenia, Ardisia (?), Clerodendron, Grewia, Hibiscus, Castanopsis, Elaeocarpus, Quercus, Pometia, Ficus, Morus, Streblus, Melia, Camellia, Gordonia, Gardenia, Barringtonia, Canarium)

  • Secondary veins sticking out of the leaf margin (Castanopsis, Quercus, (Pometia)

  • Leaves in (pseudo-)whorls (Actinodaphne, Alstonia, Terminalia (some), Wrightia, Rauvolfia)

  • Leaves crowded at twig tip (Terminalia (most), Alstonia, Wrightia, Rauvolfia, Erythrina, Dillenia (?), Baccaurea, Mallotus (some), Macaranga (some), Bombax, Madhuca, Alseodaphne, Elaeocarpus, Aglaia, Dysoxylum, Ficus, Pometia, Melia, Toona, Arecaceae, Mangifera, Barringtonia)

  • Flowers with wrinkled petals (Lagerstroemia, Dillenia)

  • Flowers on leafless stalk (Curcuma, Zingiber)

  • Flowers 3-merous (Annonaceae, Arecaceae)

  • Flowers on hooks (Artabotrys)

  • Flowers inside fruit (Ficus)

  • Flowers with pollinia (Orchidaceae)

  • Flowers with long corolla tube (Rubiaceae (many), Bignoniaceae, Apocynaceae (most))

  • Flowers powder-puff/fire-work (Barringtonia, Syzygium, Parkia, Albizia, Adenanthera, Archidendron)

  • Flowers placed in a fleshy, elongate, compact mass surrounded by bract (Araceae)

  • Stamens opening with flaps (Lauraceae)

  • Very large fleshy yellow fruit (Artocarpus)

  • Flowers in umbells (Anthocephallus, Trevesia, Ixora (but not really))

  • Fruit surrounded by enlarged sepals (Tectona, Gmelina, Dillenia)

  • Fruits syncarps (Artocarpus, Morinda, Morus, Magnolia)

  • Fruits mango-shaped (Anacardiaceae (often))

  • Legume fruit (Leguminosae)

  • Fruits paired (Apocynaceae)

  • Fruits with persistent (enlarged) calyx at base (Diospyros, Duabanga, Lagerstroemia)

  • Fruits with persistent (enlarged) calyx at top (Rubiaceae (many), Syzygium, Melastomataceae, Rosaceae (some), Dipterocarpus)

  • Fruits blackberry, red-black and sweet-sour (Morus)

  • Fruiting from the stem (Baccaurea, Ficus, Artocarpus)

  • Fruit a cone (Pinus, Araucaria)

  • Fruits with wings (Dipterocarpaceae, Pterocarpus, Combretum)

  • Fruits many and connected via central axis (apocarp) (Annonaceae)

  • Fruits like bead string (Desmos)

  • Fruit with persistent flower parts on top (Dipterocarpus, Syzygium)

  • Spiny fruits (Fagaceae, mostly Castanopsis)

  • Seeds with aril (Magnolia, Dillenia (some), Meliaceae, Harpullia, Myristicaceae, Sterculia, Macaranga, Mallotus, Dialium, Archidendron, Cassia)

  • Seeds with wings (Anogeissus, Pterospermum, Scaphium, Bignoniaceae)

  • Seeds with hairs (Bombax, Alstonia, Wrightia)